Based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is matemally transferred, we can maternaly draw conclusions about immigration history. The map shows approximately the areas where 90% of all females occur based on hunter-killed bears.
The result indicates that brown bears colonialised Scandinavia after the last Ice Age about 10-14000 years ago from two directions: from the east and from the south
Almost all females live concentrated in in three areas that we callcore areas for reproduction.
The MtDNA of the brown bears in the southern core area is similar to that of the bears in the Pyrenees and the Cantabrian mountains in France and Spain. These brown bears presumably colonialised Southern Scandinavia after the last Ice Age.
MtDNA from the bears in the two northern areas is similar to that of Finnish and Russian brown bears. Their forerunners presumably survived the Ice Age in the ice free area west from the Ural Mountains and colonialised Sweden from the east.
The frontier between the two populations is approximately in the area of Storsjön/Sweden.